Mughal Empire Aurangzeb Biography

Mughal Empire Aurangzeb

Aurangzeb History:

Mughal Empire Aurangzeb Biography is Aurangzeb Born on October 24, 1618 at Dohad in Gujarat, Aurangzeb was in the full maturity of his manhood when, after a bloody war of succession, he proclaimed himself sovereign at Delhi. Subtle and intelligent, brave and thoughtful, he had the ability to plan and execute. Read Brief information  Of Mughal Empire Aurangzeb History.

 

Ambitious in his aspirations, and firm in his resolve, he would not fail or falter in the face of difficulties. Having won a vast and extensive empire seething with political and administrative problems, he applied his acute and penetrating mind to their solution, though final success always eluded his grasp.

He was undoubtedly well intentioned, but he could not get out of the narrow grooves into which his aptitude and training had thrown him. His early career was bright, but as emperor he failed to adapt himself to his environments. He toiled incessantly but at the end he was disappointed and frustrated. He was the last of the great Mughals, but his actions and policies struck a severe below to the greatness of the empire.

Mughal Empire Aurangzeb

It was only after the final defeat of Dara Shukoh at Deorai that he celebrated his coronation on June 5, 1659 His next twenty years were spent at Delhi and Agra with only occasional absence on military campaigns and once on a trip to Kashmir in 1663. The fame of the Mughal Empire having spread far and wide, many foreign powers of Asia accredited their representatives to the imperial court at Delhi.

 

The Sharif of Mecca and the rulers of Balkh, Bukhara, Kashgar, Urganj, Yaman and Mocha, sent their envoys to witness the dazzling glory of the Mughal court.

Among the military exploits of the first part of the reign was the invasion of Assam. Mir Junla who after the expulsion of Shuja from Bengal had been appointed its governor (June 1660) led it. He succeeded in capturing the capital of Cooch Behar and annexed the kingdom.

He entered Assam, but fell ill and died on his way back.  He was succeeded by Shayista Khan who came to terms with the Raja of Cooch Behar, but later on annexed the district of Rangpur and Kamarupa.

More serious however, was the problem of law and order in the hilly belt between Afghanistan and the Puniab inhabited by the warlike tribes who had always been a source of trouble to the rulers of Delhi and Agra.

In 1667 Bhagu, the leader of Yusufzai clans of Swat and Bajaur, revolted and plundered Peshawar and Attack. But the insurgents were suppressed with an iron hand. Later in 1672 the Afridis and Khataks joined hands and overpowered the newly appointed governor of Kabul It was after five years that the situation could be brought under control by Amir Khan, the governor of Kabul.

Mughal Empire Aurangzeb

The general atmosphere in the empire was causing worry to Aurangzeb and he began to think seriously of improvements. The nobility was licentious and corrupt, the people had little regard for their ruler, fissiparous tendencies by way of the parochial and defiant attitude of the Sikhs, Bundelas and Marathas were clearly in evidence, the waywardness of Jai Singh and Jaswant Singh was disturbing and cast suspicion on Rajput loyalty.

The combination of all these factors posed the problem of formulating an effective policy which should strengthen the empire. Aurangzeb had two alternative before him either to carry on the liberal outlook of his predecessors, or adopt stem methods. His conscience favored the latter course.

In March 1659, he forbade the construction of new temples, in 1664, he prohibited the repair of old temples, and five years later he issued a general order to the governors of all the provinces to demolish the schools and temples – of infidels and put down their teaching and religious practices strongly.

Famous Hindu places of worship suffered destruction, the temples of Somanatha at Patan, Visvanatha at Varanasi and Kesava Rai at Mathura. In 1668 Hindu religious fair were forbidden, and three years later an order was issued that Muslims alone were to be appointed as revenue collectors in crown lands.

Worst of all, in 1679 the hated jiryah was reimposed on the unbelievers after they had enjoyed exemption from it for more than a century.

The discriminating custom duty was raised to 5 percent for the Hindus in 1665, two years later it was abolished altogether for the Muslims, who till then had to pay only 2.5 per cent Among the emperor’s puritanical measures are mentioned the abolition of the practice of imprinting the Kalimah on the coins, the observance of the Nauruz, the cultivation of bhang, the practice of weighing the emperor and the custom of Tika.

Mughal Empire Aurangzeb

Aurangzeb | Biography, History, & Facts | Britannica.com

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