ChandraGupta Maurya (322 BC to 298 BC) of Ancient Indian History

ChandraGupta Maurya

ChandraGupta also known as Chandragupta Maurya, According to Buddhist Sources, Chandragupta Maurya was born in the Mariya Tribe of Pipplivan, in the East Champaran district of Bihar in 345 BC चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य

Chandra Gupta was born after the death of his father and the brothers of his mother (his maternaluncles) who were unable to take care of the upbringing of the child, and sold him to a cow-herd, who used to rear cows. Also learn about chandragupta cast and chandragupta maurya wife.


The cowherd sold him to a hunter Chandra Gupta was endowed with extra-ordinary physical and mental prowess. One day, Chanakya, the Brahmin ideologue and strategist, who had been humiliated by the Nanda king, Dhananand, saw ChandraGupta Maurya, at a game of Rajakilam (chess).

ChandraGupta Maurya

He was so impressed by the qualities of the child that he bought the young Chand Gupta Maurya from the hunter by paying 1000 Karshapanas (silver coins).

Chanakya gave him military and educational training at Takshila and groomed Chandra Gupta Maurya to challenge the Nanda dynasty. Chanakya advised Chandragupta Maurya to seek the help of Alexander in defeating the Nande empire of Magadh. However, his outspoken and impudent behavior, offended Alexander and Chandra Gupta barely managed to save his life by running away from the Alexander.

Chandra Gupta set up two initial goals for himself :-

(a) Displacing the tyrannincal Nanda empire in Magadh and giving respite to the of Magadh.
(b) Expelling the Greek invaders from Indian soil.

In order to achieve his goal ChandraGupta began by first conquering the Punjab. He then advanced towards Magadh and conquered Magadha and occupied its capital Pataliputra. In history it was not clearly mentioned that Dhananand the last Nanda ruler was probably killed in the battle or he ran away.

After winning the battle,the people of Magadha welcomed Chandra Gupta as a liberator from the Nanda tyranny. He became instantly popular and gathered strength in Magadha.

Whereas the Bhadrasal, the commander-in-chief of Dhananand and Rakshas, his Prime-Minister tried to put Savarthasiddha the brother of Dhanananda on the throne However, they were unsuccessful.

After gaining the throne of Magadha, Chandragupta organised a large and efficient army of 6 lac soldiers (astestified by both Plutarch and Justin) and overran the whole of India.

At the height of his power the empire of Chandra Gupta extended from Kandhar and Heart in Afghanistan, in the north to the Karnataka in the South and from Kathiawar in the west to Pundhara bhukti (Bengal) and Assam in the east.

The Foreign writers have addressed Chandra Gupta Maurya with different names, Strabo, Arrian, Justin and Megasthanese call him Sandro cottus Appianus and Plutarch Call himAndrocottus while Nearchus calls him Sandrocoptus.

However on February 28, 1793 Sir William Jones, the founder of the Asiatic society of Bengal, stated before the society that all the names rater to the same Chandragupta Mourya names refer to the same Chandragupta Maurya From the Jaina source Parishishta parvan and also from the Mudra Rakshasa of Vishakhadutta we galher that Chandra Gupta took the help of a Chief Parvartak in the conquest of Magadha.

In 305 AD, ChandraGupta, in keeping with his mission of driving out foreigness from the Indian soil, defeated the Greek Kshatrapa (Viceroy) Sleucos Niketor on the Banks of the Indus river. Only one Greek historian, Appianus has described this battle and its outcome Afterr being defeated in the battle, Seleucos Niketar signed a Treaty with Chandra Gupta

Maurya, According to which

(a) Seleucos gave his daughter Helena (Cornelia) in marriage to Chandra Gupta.
(b) Chandra Gupta gifted 500 elephants to Seleucos
(c) Chandra Gupta received 4 provinces in the North west as dowry

• Aria (Heart)
• Aracosia (Kandhar)
• Gedrosia (Baluchistan)
• Parikanosdei (Kabul)
At that time Megasthanese was sent as the Greek ambassador to the court of Chandragupta
Some of the important points about Chandra Gupta Maurya given below:

• Chandragupta’s conquest of western India has been testified by the Junagarh Inscription of the Saka ruler, Rudra dam, which says that Pushyagupta, the governor of Saurashtra under the Mauryan king,

Chandra Gupta Maurya carried out the digging of the Sudarshan Lake of Saurashtra, as a pre-emptive measure against draughts.

• The extension of the empire of Chandra Gupta Maurya in the south, has been testified by the Tamil Sangam literature.

• We gather from legends, that towards the end of the reign of Chandra Gupta, a disastrons famine struck Magadh

• So distressed was Chandragupta Maurya by the ravages of this famine that he entrusted the throne of Magadha to his son. Bindusar and became a Jain monk (Bhikshuk) He went to South India along with the Jain ascetic Bhadrabahu.

• He renounced the world by ending his life according to the Jaina sallekhana penance system at Shravanbelgola in the Chandragiri Hills of Mysore.

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